Tag: education

Private Pilot Airplane – Aircraft Performance – ASA (Aviation Supplies & Academics)

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Gain the information you need to be a safe, competent and confident pilot with this in-depth, comprehensive ground school on Aircraft Performance. Brilliant animations, 3D graphics and special effects throughout along with expert instructors and terrific inflight footage make this a thoroughly entertaining and motivating learning experience.

Video program contents: Density Altitude; Takeoff Distance; Fuel Consumption; Crosswind Component; Distance; Weight and Balance. Features an interview with renowned aviator and writer, Barry Schiff. Total running time = 47 minutes.

Here is a 4 1/2 minute sample clip from the Aircraft Performance Lesson. It includes a chapter on the Crosswind Component. To purchase the full lesson, click the link below. To purchase the full length versions of all lessons in this series, see our Virtual Test Prep for Private Pilot in either Widescreen Edition, or Blu-ray.

Aerobatics & Spin Recovery: “The Inverted Spin” 1943 US Navy Pilot Training Film

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The Inverted Spin – Intermediate Acrobatics Part VII. "Points out the difference between an accidental spin and an inverted spin; and demonstrates the procedure of executing an inverted spin."

US Navy flight training film MN-1325f.

Public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

(aerodynamics)

A spin is a special category of stall resulting in autorotation about the vertical axis and a shallow, rotating, downward path. Spins can be entered intentionally or unintentionally, from any flight attitude if the aircraft has sufficient yaw while at the stall point. In a normal spin, the wing on the inside of the turn is stalled while the outside wing remains flying; it is possible for both wings to be stalled but the angle of attack of each wing, and consequently its lift and drag, will be different. Either situation causes the aircraft to autorotate (yaw) toward the stalled wing due to its higher drag and loss of lift. Spins are characterized by high angle of attack, an airspeed below the stall on at least one wing and a shallow descent. Recovery may require a specific and counterintuitive set of actions in order to avoid a crash.

A spin differs from a spiral dive in which neither wing is stalled and which is characterized by a low angle of attack and high airspeed. A spiral dive is not a type of spin because neither wing is stalled. In a spiral dive, the aircraft will respond conventionally to the pilot's inputs to the flight controls and recovery from a spiral dive requires a different set of actions from those required to from a spin.

In the early years of flight, a spin was frequently referred to as a "tailspin"…

Entry and recovery

Some aircraft cannot be recovered from a spin using only their own flight control surfaces and must not be allowed to enter a spin under any circumstances…

Spin-entry procedures vary with the type and model of aircraft being flown but there are general procedures applicable to most aircraft. These include reducing power to idle and simultaneously raising the nose in order to induce an upright stall. Then, as the aircraft approaches stall, apply full rudder in the desired spin direction while holding full back-elevator pressure for an upright spin. Sometimes a roll input is applied in the direction opposite of the rudder (i.e., a cross-control).

If the aircraft manufacturer provides a specific procedure for spin recovery, that procedure must be used. Otherwise, to recover from an upright spin, the following generic procedure may be used: Power is first reduced to idle and the ailerons are neutralized. Then, full opposite rudder (that is, against the yaw) is added and held to counteract the spin rotation, and the elevator control is moved briskly forward to reduce the angle of attack below the critical angle. Depending on the airplane and the type of spin, the elevator action could be a minimal input before rotation ceases, or in other cases the elevator control may have to be moved to its full forward position to effect recovery from the upright spin. Once the rotation has stopped, the rudder must be neutralized and the airplane returned to level flight. This procedure is sometimes called PARE, for Power idle, Ailerons neutral, Rudder opposite the spin and held, and Elevator through neutral. The mnemonic "PARE" simply reinforces the tried-and-true NASA standard spin recovery actions—the very same actions first prescribed by NACA in 1936, verified by NASA during an intensive, decade-long spin test program overlapping the 1970s and '80s, and repeatedly recommended by the FAA and implemented by the majority of test pilots during certification spin-testing of light airplanes.

Inverted spinning and erect or upright spinning are dynamically very similar and require essentially the same recovery process but use opposite elevator control. In an upright spin, both roll and yaw are in the same direction but that an inverted spin is composed of opposing roll and yaw. It is crucial that the yaw be countered to effect recovery. The visual field in a typical spin (as opposed to a flat spin) is heavily dominated by the perception of roll over yaw, which can lead to an incorrect and dangerous conclusion that a given inverted spin is actually an erect spin in the reverse yaw direction (leading to a recovery attempt in which pro-spin rudder is mistakenly applied and then further exacerbated by holding the incorrect elevator input)…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jOB1Gkg2h18

Emergency Transponder Codes and Mayday – Private Pilot Lesson 2d

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Private Pilot Airplane – Communication Procedures – ASA (Aviation Supplies & Academics)

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Gain the information you need to be a safe, competent and confident pilot with this in-depth, comprehensive ground school on Communication Procedures. Brilliant animations, 3D graphics and special effects throughout along with expert instructors and terrific inflight footage make this a thoroughly entertaining and motivating learning experience.

Video program contents: Traffic Advisories; Light Gun Signals; Radio Phraseology; ATIS; Controller Communications; Flight Service Stations; ELT; DF Steer; Transponder. Features an interview with aviator and prolific writer, Bob Gardner. Total running time = 42 minutes.

Here is a 4 1/2 minute sample clip from the Communication Procedures Lesson. It includes a chapter on Light Gun Signals. To purchase the full lesson, click the link below. To purchase the full length versions of all lessons in this series, see our Virtual Test Prep for Private Pilot in either Widescreen Edition, or Blu-ray.

You can find this video download here:

Find the DVD set containing all Private Pilot lessons here:

Private Pilot Airplane – Aircraft Systems – ASA (Aviation Supplies & Academics)

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Gain the information you need to be a safe, competent and confident pilot with this in-depth, comprehensive ground school on Aircraft Systems. Brilliant animations, 3D graphics and special effects throughout along with expert instructors and terrific inflight footage make this a thoroughly entertaining and motivating learning experience.

Video program contents: Four Stroke Engine; Engine Temperature; Fuel Induction Systems; Carburetor Systems; Fuel Grades; Ignition Systems; Propeller; Prelight Inspections; Hand Propping. Features an interview with aviator and prolific writer, Bob Gardner. Total running time = 31 minutes.

Here is a 4 1/2 minute sample clip from the Aircraft Systems lesson. It includes chapters on the Four-Stroke Engine, Fuel Induction Systems, and Carburetor Icing. To purchase the full lesson, click the link below. To purchase the full length versions of all lessons in this series, see our Virtual Test Prep for Private Pilot in either Widescreen Edition, or Blu-ray.

Helicopter Pilot Training: “Transition to the H-19” 1956 US Army Training Film

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"Helicopter Flight Training: Part I – Transition to the H-19… This film covers the H-19's preflight inspection, taxiing, normal takeoff, hovering, autorotations, normal and steep approach, and engine shutdown." Also seen in the film: Army helicopters H-21, H-34, and H-13.

US Army training film TF46-2423

Reupload of a previously uploaded film, in one piece instead of multiple parts.

Public domain film from the National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization.

The Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw, (also known by its Sikorsky model number, S-55) was a multi-purpose helicopter used by the United States Army and United States Air Force. It was also license-built by Westland Aircraft as the Westland Whirlwind in the United Kingdom. United States Navy and United States Coast Guard models were designated HO4S, while those of the U.S. Marine Corps were designated HRS. In 1962, the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Marine Corps versions were all redesignated as H-19s like their U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force counterparts…

The H-19's first flight was on November 10, 1949 and it entered operations in 1950. Over 1,000 of the helicopters were manufactured by Sikorsky for the United States. An additional 550 were manufactured by licensees of the helicopter including Westland Aircraft, the Société nationale des constructions aéronautiques du sud-est (SNCASE) in France and Mitsubishi in Japan.

The helicopter was widely exported, used by many other nations, including Portugal, Greece, Israel, Chile, South Africa, Denmark and Turkey.

In 1954 the Marines tested an idea to assist the rotors lift better in hot or high climates and if the helicopter was overloaded, by installing a rocket nozzle at the tip of each rotor blade with the fuel tank located in the center above the rotor blade hub. Enough fuel was provided for seven minutes of operation.

Operational history

The H-19 Chickasaw holds the distinction of being the US Army's first true transport helicopter and, as such, played an important role in the initial formulation of Army doctrine regarding air mobility and the battlefield employment of troop-carrying helicopters. The H-19 underwent live service tests in the hands of the 6th Transportation Company, during the Korean War beginning in 1951 as an unarmed transport helicopter. Undergoing tests such as medical evacuation, tactical control and front-line cargo support, the helicopter succeeded admirably in surpassing the capabilities of the H-5 Dragonfly which had been used throughout the war by the Army.

The U.S. Air Force ordered 50 H-19A's for rescue duties in 1951. These aircraft were the primary rescue and medical evacuation helicopters for the USAF during the Korean War. The Air Force continued to use the H-19 through the 1960s, ultimately acquiring 270 of the H-19B model.

France made aggressive use of helicopters in Algeria, both as troop transports and gunships, Piasecki/Vertol H-21 and Sud-built Sikorski H-34 helicopters rapidly displaced fixed-wing aircraft for the transport of paras and quick-reaction commando teams. In Indochina, a small number of Hiller H-23s and Sikorsky H-19s were available for casualty evacuation. In 1956, the French Air Force experimented with arming the H-19, then being superseded in service by the more capable Piasecki H-21 and Sikorsky H-34 helicopters. The H-19 was originally fitted with a 20-mm cannon, two rocket launchers, plus a 20-mm cannon, two 12.7-mm machine guns, and a 7.5-mm light machine gun firing from the cabin windows, but this load proved far too heavy, and even lightly armed H-19 gunships fitted with flexible machine guns for self-defense proved underpowered.

The H-19 was also used in the early days of the Vietnam War before being supplanted by the Sikorsky H-34 Choctaw, which was based on the H-19…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6H9OfeES7M

Private Pilot Airplane – Weather – ASA (Aviation Supplies & Academics)

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Gain the information you need to be a safe, competent and confident pilot with this in-depth, comprehensive ground school on Weather. Brilliant animations, 3D graphics and special effects throughout along with expert instructors and terrific inflight footage make this a thoroughly entertaining and motivating learning experience.

Video program contents: What is Weather; Circulation & Wind; Temperature & Moisture; Atmospheric Stability; Clouds; Air Masses; Fronts; Thunderstorms; Turbulence; Airframe Icing; Jet Stream. Features an interview with AOPA Editor and prolific writer Tom Horne. Total running time = 1 hour 30 minutes.

Here is a 4 1/2 minute sample clip from the Weather Lesson. It includes a chapter on Thunderstorms. To purchase the full lesson, click the link below. To purchase the full length versions of all lessons in this series, see our Virtual Test Prep for Private Pilot in either Widescreen Edition, or Blu-ray.

Private Pilot Airplane – Flight Instruments – ASA (Aviation Supplies & Academics)

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Gain the information you need to be a safe, competent and confident pilot with this in-depth, comprehensive ground school on Flight Instruments. Brilliant animations, 3D graphics and special effects throughout along with expert instructors and terrific inflight footage make this a thoroughly entertaining and motivating learning experience.

Video program contents: Pitot-Static System; Airspeed Indicator; Airspeed Limitations; Vertical Speed Indicator; Altimeter; Types of Altitudes; Gyroscopic Instruments; Magnetic Compass; Compass Errors. Features an interview with Dr. Steve Casner, a research scientist with NASA. Total running time = 32 minutes.

Here is a 5 1/2 minute sample clip from the Flight Instruments Lesson. It includes chapters on the Pitot Static System, the Airspeed Indicator, and Airspeed Limitations. To purchase the full lesson, click the link below. To purchase the full length versions of all lessons in this series, see our Virtual Test Prep for Private Pilot in either Widescreen Edition, or Blu-ray.

How to become a Private Pilot ?

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This informative video contains almost all the necessary information you need to start off as a private pilot. If you have any questions or concerns feel free to comment below. Please don't forget to click subscribe to receive a weekly aviation informative, safety, and knowledge video. Future videos will be shorter.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WdKy7-dwSTk

Aerial Navigation: Maps and the Compass 1941 US Army Pilot Training Film; Signal Corps

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US Army Training Film TF-1245

Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization.

There is a broadband hum in the vocal frequencies of this film which I cannot completely remove.

The basic principles of air navigation are identical to general navigation, which includes the process of planning, recording, and controlling the movement of a craft from one place to another.

Successful air navigation involves piloting an aircraft from place to place without getting lost, breaking the laws applying to aircraft, or endangering the safety of those on board or on the ground. Air navigation differs from the navigation of surface craft in several ways: Aircraft travel at relatively high speeds, leaving less time to calculate their position en route. Aircraft normally cannot stop in mid-air to ascertain their position at leisure. Aircraft are safety-limited by the amount of fuel they can carry; a surface vehicle can usually get lost, run out of fuel, then simply await rescue. There is no in-flight rescue for most aircraft. Additionally, collisions with obstructions are usually fatal. Therefore, constant awareness of position is critical for aircraft pilots.

The techniques used for navigation in the air will depend on whether the aircraft is flying under visual flight rules (VFR) or instrument flight rules (IFR). In the latter case, the pilot will navigate exclusively using instruments and radio navigation aids such as beacons, or as directed under radar control by air traffic control…

Route planning

The first step in navigation is deciding where one wishes to go. A private pilot planning a flight under VFR will usually use an aeronautical chart of the area which is published specifically for the use of pilots. This map will depict controlled airspace, radio navigation aids and airfields prominently, as well as hazards to flying such as mountains, tall radio masts, etc. It also includes sufficient ground detail – towns, roads, wooded areas – to aid visual navigation. In the UK, the CAA publishes a series of maps covering the whole of the UK at various scales, updated annually. The information is also updated in the notices to airmen, or NOTAMs.

The pilot will choose a route, taking care to avoid controlled airspace that is not permitted for the flight, restricted areas, danger areas and so on. The chosen route is plotted on the map, and the lines drawn are called the track. The aim of all subsequent navigation is to follow the chosen track as accurately as possible. Occasionally, the pilot may elect on one leg to follow a clearly visible feature on the ground such as a railway track, river, highway, or coast.

When an aircraft is in flight, it is moving relative to the body of air through which it is flying; therefore maintaining an accurate ground track is not as easy as it might appear, unless there is no wind at all — a very rare occurrence. The pilot must adjust heading to compensate for the wind, in order to follow the ground track. Initially the pilot will calculate headings to fly for each leg of the trip prior to departure, using the forecast wind directions and speeds supplied by the meteorological authorities for the purpose… A general aviation (GA) pilot will often make use of either the E6B flight computer – a type of slide rule – or a purpose-designed electronic navigational computer to calculate initial headings.

The primary instrument of navigation is the magnetic compass. The needle or card aligns itself to magnetic north, which does not coincide with true north, so the pilot must also allow for this, called the magnetic variation (or declination). The variation that applies locally is also shown on the flight map. Once the pilot has calculated the actual headings required, the next step is to calculate the flight times for each leg. This is necessary to perform accurate dead reckoning…

The flight time will depend on both the desired cruising speed of the aircraft, and the wind – a tailwind will shorten flight times, a headwind will increase them. The E6B has scales to help pilots compute these easily.

The point of no return, sometimes referred to as the PNR, is the point on a flight at which a plane has just enough fuel, plus any mandatory reserve, to return to the airfield from which it departed… Similarly, the Equal time point, referred to as the ETP (also Critical point(CP)), is the point in the flight where it would take the same time to continue flying straight, or track back to the departure aerodrome…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VQrGbz1dczY

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