Tag: private pilot

Books to study for private pilot license refresher.

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books to study for private pilot license refresher - Books to study for private pilot license refresher.

Are you going back to after a long time? With numerous resources available online, it’s easy to get confused. It’s time to prepare for the renewal, and you don’t know where to begin.

You can have your hands on all the aviation books in this world and figure it’s impossible to study all of the books before your PPL renewal. Or you can be wise to pick a few selected textbooks.

I shared the preferred books that I keep in my digital library, and also, you can find the free version of a couple of these books on FAA’s website.

So which books do you think I recommend?

Let me tell you this each pilot have their favorite instructor and publisher of books. No matter which book you buy, if you need books for private pilot license renewal or refresher, you need more than one book for different purposes.

I listed books in three categories to serve a different purpose and get you back in the sky without delays:

  • Books to refresh your aeronautical knowledge;
  • To revise your flight operational skills, I would need another book;
  • Lastly, a book to sharpen my communication skills;
  • Finally, I would keep a FAR/AIM book handy to aid my regulation memory.

Study one book from each category, and you will be ready to be a pilot in command.

Which books can refresh your aeronautical knowledge?

Jeppesen is a pioneer in publishing aviation books. My flight school recommended Jeppesen’s private pilot manual when I started my pilot training. Undoubtedly, Jeppesen’s books are colorful with lots of images and illustrations.

However, aspiring pilots find Jeppesen’s books overwhelming. Similarly, many student pilots don’t have the time to read lots of information. It is better to learn only the essential information for the private pilot stage.

As you progress in your flight training, you can study more and gather information.

Regardless, Jeppesen’s Private pilot manual is an excellent book if you have plenty of time to prepare for your private pilot license refresher. Assuming you are a current private pilot and want to study something to refresh your knowledge, then looking at Jeppesen private pilot manual can fulfill your needs.

On the contrary, if I want to study one book and have all the information in one place in an easy-to-understand language, I would pick Rod Machado Private pilot handbook. The book is available in both pdf and textbook versions.

Rod Machado’s books are fun to read with lots of crucial facts. Rod Machado is renowned for explaining things in ways that student pilots never forget once they read.

It’s not about what you studied, and it’s crucial to remember essential cases at the right time. Rod Machado’s explanation is for pilots to remember all the facts forever.

If you read many books and can’t utilize the knowledge in real life, this knowledge is not practical.

Rod Machado explains things with examples, tips, and techniques for student pilots to never forget a subject. Even I memorized an entire book and can’t remember the different types of Airspace, what benefit would be learning a whole book do for me?

It’s you who need to identify which subjects are essential for you. Or issues on which you need more clarification.

Rod Machado’s private pilot handbook has a table of contents to find the subject you need more practice on and then continue reading from there.

Aeronautical knowledge books are lengthy with many texts, and you don’t need all the information during an actual flight. The subjects are in the book because it is good to know about safe flight operations.

If you are unwilling to study either of the books I mentioned above, you can choose this last book by ASA, commonly known as PHAK.

FAA recommends the pilot’s handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, and you can have a PDF version of the book for free by clicking here.

ASA’s PHAK is not a heavy book, but it has all the necessary information to become a safe pilot.

During your advanced flight training, you may need more information. ASA’s PHAK is like a summarized version of other books. It is a compact version of all the facts you need to know to be a private pilot. Now, ask yourself why do you need a book?

If you are a current private pilot and want to refresh fundamental aeronautical knowledge, then buy Rod Machado’s Private pilot handbook.

If you have limited time to study and renew your private pilot license, the ASA’s PHAK can do the job for you.

Which books to improve your fundamental skills?

Before you go back to flying after a break, you must look at one of these books I mention below. These books are essential whether you are coming to fly after decades or a current pilot who wants to refresh your practical aircraft operating skills.

In the past, you were probably an excellent VFR pilot. But no matter how good you are at flying, without practice, you will struggle. Similarly, an intelligent pilot is always learning.

So these books are suitable for anyone who wants to improve their existing flying skills.

But do you need to study both of these books? Sometimes less is more. If you have the time, you can explore both, but if you want to become a better pilot, then study one book at a time and apply the lessons in actual flight training.

You may wonder how can reading a book improve actual flying.

Honestly, it does help because you absorb knowledge from the book, and during the experience, your brain automatically reloads what you have to do.

In books, you read about how to perform a maneuver correctly and stabilize your aircraft to maintain a straight and level flight in detail. Often the details in the books are better than how a flight instructor explains inside the cockpit.

Many pilots struggle to land the aircraft smoothly because many amateur pilots don’t understand a smooth touchdown depends on a good approach entry. Thus the landing phase for a pilot begins at the downwind when the pilot enters the traffic altitude.

Landing the aircraft is like a chain reaction. A minor error at the base will make your touchdown bumpy.

If you read the airplane flying handbook that I listed, you will know many other details about operating and maneuvering an aircraft as a pilot in command.

There is a popular book about learning how to fly an airplane:

Stick & Rudder flying teaches pilots to operate an aircraft without exceeding the limits. This book explains the fundamentals of aviation in great detail and matters a pilot must learn to manage the plane safely.

However, this book was published a long time ago, and a lot has changed today in aviation. Thus, this book seems irrelevant in many aspects of flying today. Therefore, I mentioned the two other books:

  • How to fly an airplane handbook;
  • Airplane flying handbook

These two books are relevant to studying the fundamentals of flying and becoming a better airman.

Which books to study to improve your private pilot communication skills?

As a private pilot, you don’t need to read any particular book for communication skills. Aviation communication is mostly about practice.

The more often you aviate and communicate, the more confident you become, and over time communication becomes your second nature during flight.

However, you must be ready for congested Airspace. You can’t waste any time in a busy airport in B airspace.

Bad communication during flight can become a fatal error while approaching a busy airport.

A current pilot who doesn’t fly often may also forget proper communication. Similarly, a pilot returning to aviation after years is entirely out of practice. Without practice, this pilot will fail to respond appropriately to other traffic in the area. Responding on time during flight is crucial. A delay in responding can lead to a fatal crash in the sky.

You don’t want to be that pilot who gets stuck during the flight. It is embarrassing and the worst; it can be the reason for your crash.

So how do you refresh your aviation communication skills?

As a private pilot, aviation communication is not so difficult. There are plenty of books available online—both paid and free versions. After reading a book for an hour, you can grasp the basic communication techniques.

There are also many youtube tutorials available on the subject. By reading a book like this: VFR communication for Idiots, you can be ready for your first flight after decades.

Communication for VFR flight is straightforward. IFR flight communication is more challenging, but that’s a subject for a different post.

Also, you can go to amazon.com and purchase a book to improve your communication tricks for the private pilot stage.

Lastly, have a FAR/AIM at your disposal.

You can access the latest FAR/AIM from FAA’s website or purchase a physical copy online or offline.

To refresh your aviation regulation proficiency and maintain airspace safety, you must remember the air laws at all times. A pilot must keep the FAR/AIM book handy during the flight. It is tricky to remember every federal aviation regulation, so having the book and referring to it now and then is essential.

After years, a private pilot going back to the flight can go through the book and use this book for a private pilot license refresher.

To continue flying as a proficient private pilot having a FAR/AIM book is essential.

Landing approach altitude.

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Every pilot wants to be on the glide path and have a perfect landing.

However, it’s always challenging to maintain the correct landing approach altitude for inexperienced private pilots.

This post will teach you what other factors with landing approach altitude in VFR flights aids in a good touchdown.

  • What is the correct landing approach altitude?;
  • Why do you have difficulty maintaining the glide path?;
  • Traffic pattern altitude for landing in towered airports;
  • Traffic pattern altitude for uncontrolled airports;
  • What are the altitudes and engine settings for each leg of a VFR flight approach?

Establish the final approach with the correct altitude alone can’t make much difference if you don’t maintain a proper descent rate for landing.

What is the correct landing approach altitude?

You might be asking the wrong question here. Private pilots often relate perfect landing with maintaining the appropriate altitude.

However, it is vital to learn to maintain a glideslope for a better landing.

Maintaining the glideslope on approach means a private pilot must have a steady descent rate. If a pilot loses altitude quickly on the final approach, the aircraft might crash short.

So, the question should be:

How to maintain the glideslope and have a steady descent rate?

To be on the glideslope and have a steady descent rate, a private pilot needs patience and a lot of practice.

  • Impatient pilots tend to overcontrol the airplane. Suppose a pilot is overcontrolling the aircraft, then the aircraft reacts to the input instead of responding correctly. Thus the pilots end up having a lousy landing.
  • Likewise, practice is essential for pilots to understand the visual changes in runway geometry while steadily descending towards the runway.

Hence the correct landing approach altitude has nothing to do with the bad landing. Instead, the changing height has the most contribution to good landings.

Why do many pilots struggle to maintain the glideslope on VFR flights?

If a pilot struggles to maintain the glideslope, then there is a likelihood the pilot has entered the final with a very high altitude.

Having a high altitude on the final is safer than being low on the final.

While a pilot turns final from the base, multiple other factors can change the airplane’s attitude.

  • Abrupt changes in the aircraft’s attitude due to crosswind or tailwind can make it hard to be on the glideslope.
  • A sudden change in weather can bring about updraft or downdraft on final, making the landing sloppy for pilots.

Changes in the airplane’s attitude on the final make it challenging to have a steady rate of descent.

If a pilot is below the glideslope on final, likely the pilot will try to climb by adding power. Adding power will change the attitude of the airplane and will rise to the glideslope. However, many pilots forget to do corrections after the aircraft is on the glideslope. Thus the plane keeps climbing if the power is not adjusted to be on the glideslope.

If the pilot forgets to adjust the power to maintain the glideslope, the aircraft will be higher than the glideslope.

Likewise, a pilot must reduce power to maintain the glideslope if an airplane is higher than the glideslope. Once the aircraft is on the glideslope, the pilot must add RPM to keep the glideslope and a steady descent rate.

Pilots often forget to adjust the throttle once they establish on the glideslope. Hence they push and pull on the yoke or the stick, resulting in a lousy landing.

landing approach altitude - Landing approach altitude.

Traffic pattern altitude for landing in controlled airports.

If you are approaching a controlled airport, then there is a rule of thumb.

You must always enter the downwind at an altitude of 1000 feet AGL.

It means a private pilot must enter the downwind at 1000 Feet if the airport elevation is 0 Feet.

If the airport elevation is 200 Feet, a pilot must enter the traffic pattern by downwind at 1000+200 = 1200 Feet.

It is a fundamental approach to landing altitude entering the traffic pattern in controlled airspace.

Traffic pattern altitude for landing in uncontrolled airspace.

The same rule of entering the traffic pattern at 1000 Feet AGL applies for non towered airports.

And if the non-towered airport has an elevation, the pilot must use the AIM before flying there and learn what airport height is.

After learning about the airport, the elevation pilot can add 1000 feet to the elevation to find out the traffic pattern altitude for that airport.

There is also another thing to do while approaching an uncontrolled airport. A private pilot must identify the runway in use.

A pilot must fly overhead the runway at an altitude of 1500 Feet AGL overhead the runway to identify which runway is in use.

So if the uncontrolled airport has an elevation of 200 Feet, you must fly over the runway at 1500+200 = 1700 Feet to identify which runway to use for landing.

But of course, before doing any maneuver, you must always be aware of the traffic in the vicinity.

As a pilot, it is your responsibility to avoid air traffic collisions.

What are the altitudes and engine settings for each leg of a VFR flight approach?

I can’t tell much about the engine RPM settings of an approaching aircraft. But any aircraft need to maintain the traffic pattern altitude.

Now the landing approach altitude will vary for different legs in different airports.

Likewise, every flight instructor teaches differently. If your flight instructor taught a set of altitudes for flying that worked for you, why do you need to change it?

In time, a private pilot will have his technique to make a perfect landing as long as he can maintain the glideslope on the final approach.

Therefore keep practicing, and you will have better landings.

Flying a Cessna over western New England – an AvGeek’s childhood dream achieved

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flying a cessna over western new england an avgeeks childhood dream achieved - Flying a Cessna over western New England – an AvGeek’s childhood dream achieved

0B5, aka Turners Falls Municipal Airport in Turners Falls, Mass. This is the airport where my AvGeek obsession first took flight, and I finally got to land and take off there this month. – Photo: Katie Bailey

This is a continuation of my multi-part series on learning to fly. You can read the whole Fly With Francis series here.

My obsession with airplanes is directly attributable to a very loving grandmother’s attempts to settle down two very rambunctious young brothers. She’d drive us to nearby Turners Falls Municipal Airport to get ice cream and watch planes carrying parachutists from the local skydiving club while sitting on the hood of her beige 1969 VW Beetle. The high school I attended is located adjacent to the airport as well.

So, this spring, nearly 50 years later, with my relatively new pilot certificate in hand, I traveled back home and rented a Cessna 172SP from Monadnock Aviation in Keene, NH. Standard rental restrictions, such as a requirement for multiple checkout flights and having a dedicated rental insurance policy, made it easier to simply ask the folks at Monadnock to assign me a flight instructor to fly along on the trip to negate the need for the checkouts.

I’d planned out the route in advance, so I was well prepared for the flight. We’d start and end at Keene airport (KEEN), fly south over the Quabbin Reservoir in central Massachusetts, land at Orange Municipal Airport (KORE), fly northwest to my collegiate alma mater (University of Massachusetts Amherst), land at Turners Falls Municipal (0B5), and fly back to KEEN.

It was a pleasant day, with a very high overcast, light winds, and smooth air. I’d never flown over this area in a small plane, although I’d seen it from 20,000+ feet out the windows of commercial jetliners plenty of times flying home for visits. Trust me when I tell you the views from 3,500 feet are much better.

The New England landscape is gorgeous, much lower in elevation than what I am used to in western Washington state and remarkably green this time of the year. The airspace is also much, much quieter – we didn’t encounter a single bit of air traffic the entire flight. Contrast that with flying out of Boeing Field, where there are dozens of aircraft aloft at any given time.

By way of a nerdy statistic, 0B5 had 17,100 aircraft operations in 2011 (the most recent year for which statistics are available), or an average of 47 a day, while my home airport, KBFI, had more than 180,000 in the same period, or an average of 493 a day. According to the FAA, Boeing Field has the third-busiest airspace in the United States (New York City and Teterboro, NJ are numbers one and two, respectively). Western Massachusetts was a much more chill environment in which to fly.

It was my first pilot-in-command flight outside of metro Seattle, and I was pleased to discover that my flight planning matched up with the reality I saw outside the window. Seeing vistas that I’d previously only seen in postcards as a kid was an unforgettable experience. Having a very experienced local CFI beside me also made dealing with the unfamiliar airspace quite easy, although I only had to ask him for advice once, as it was all really pleasant and straightforward flying.

flying a cessna over western new england an avgeeks childhood dream achieved 7 - Flying a Cessna over western New England – an AvGeek’s childhood dream achieved

On final for KORE. Katie Bailey photo

The airports were all easy to find, and the sightseeing was fantastic. One thing I noticed was that, if there had been some sort of in-flight emergency and I had to do a forced landing, there were not a lot of fields available; the whole region is very heavily forested save for the Connecticut River Valley’s famously productive farmland.

Suffice it to say we had a great time. It was a bit surreal landing for the first time at the small airport I grew up next to, seeing my home area from a very new perspective, and I still managed to grease the landing. I’m planning to make this a regular part of hometown visits going forward.

EDITOR-AT-LARGE – SEATTLE, WA Francis Zera is a Seattle-based architectural, aerial, aviation, and commercial photographer, a freelance photojournalist, and a confirmed AvGeek.


Porpoising aircraft.

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porpoising aircraft - Porpoising aircraft.

Porpoising aircraft is not bouncing. Instead, it occurs if a pilot fails to control the plane after the first bounce. I explained in this post how a pilot can prevent a porpoising aircraft and why it happens.

Unable to prevent a porpoise on landing can lead to a disaster.

Thus, it would be best if you learned everything about porpoising aircraft on landing:

  • What is a porpoising plane?
  • What causes an airplane to porpoise?;
  • What to do if you enter a porpoising landing?;
  • Best practice to prevent aircraft porpoising;
  • Dangers of porpoising on landing.

Imagine you are a private pilot on a cross-country flight. You are about to flare, and a sudden gust of air pushed your aircraft to continuous oscillation of bounces over the runway. What will you do?

What is a porpoising aircraft?

Imagine an aircraft bounces off the ground, and you push hard to land the airplane, which may cause repeated bounce of the plane. The plane’s repeating bounce will continue a cycle over the runway until the pilot nose dive and crash land the airplane.

This continuous oscillation looks similar to a porpoise jumping on the surface of the water.

Porpoising aircraft is a situation that follows if the pilot fails to control an airplane bounce correctly.

Hence it is crucial to know the reason behind a porpoise on landing.

What causes an airplane to porpoise?

To understand a porpoise on landing, we must first understand what causes an airplane to bounce on landing.

Typically newbie pilots bounce in landing. The reason for inexperienced pilots to bounce on landing is because:

  • Either they sink too fast over the runway;
  • Or the approach speed of the plane was higher than recommended;
  • Not rimming the airplane properly;
  • Another reason for a bounce can also be the aircraft’s weight.

Like I mentioned, a bounced landing is likely to make aircraft porpoise.

Assuming you as a pilot approached the runway with a higher airspeed than recommended. Now when you flare with a high airspeed, it is likely the aircraft will float.

When the aircraft floats, the plane loses airspeed quickly and sinks faster, resulting in a bounce.

Naturally, after a bounce, the pilot’s instinct is to push the aircraft yoke for a touchdown.

In this situation, pushing the airplane yoke too hard is a mistake.

If the airplane touches the ground with nose landing gear first and main landing gear later at a high airspeed, the inertia at the rear of the aircraft will make the structure bounce off the ground again.

I believe the main reason for a porpoising aircraft is high approach airspeed.

The repeating bounces will ultimately go out of the pilot’s control and crash land the aircraft.

In another instance, while you were about to touchdown, you touch the ground with nose landing gear first.

This situation can also lead to a porpoise from the first bounce. Once the nose landing gear touches the ground first, the inertia on the tail of the aircraft pushes the aircraft off the ground and gains altitude. Gaining a very high altitude at this stage also can be the beginning of a porpoising landing.

What to do if you enter a porpoising landing?

The best thing to do when you enter a porpoising landing is to go around. It’s as simple as that.

An aircraft porpoises after a bounce. Once a pilot thinks he can’t control the aircraft anymore after the second bounce, it is best to go around.

After the first bounce, if the airspeed is too slow, the aircraft will touch the ground, but the touchdown impact will be immense.

If the aircraft did not stop the second time, instead it gained more altitude after the second bounce, the only thing you should do is go around. Pilots unaware of the porpoising situation might try to force the aircraft.

If you have gained altitude after the second bounce, immediately add full power and go around.

On the second approach, ensure your approach airspeed is correct, and your sink rate is between 500 to 600 feet per minute on final.

Trying to stop a porpoise on landing will make the situation worse. It is better to save yourself and the aircraft and attempt for a landing again.

Best practice to prevent aircraft porpoising.

To prevent an airplane from porpoising, you have to master controlling the airplane speed.

Practice slow flights and maintaining airspeed.

Also, learn to trim your aircraft from an early stage of your flight training. Many student pilots avoid trimming plane.

Finally, practice practice and practice landing touch and go.

No pilot can claim that they never had a bounced landing. It’s common for all pilots.

However, a porpoising aircraft is a situation that follows uncontrolled bounces.

An untrained pilot will fail to control a bounce correctly and enter a porpoise.

To prevent porpoises on landing, a pilot must maintain airspeed from the beginning of the landing phase.

VFR pilots have a set of rules to follow and airspeed to maintain from the time they enter downwind. The airspeed is variable for different aircraft, but the technique is always the same.

The pilot must maintain airspeed on all legs of the approach.

Failure to maintain recommended speed on the final can be critical.

Typically the approach speed on final is 1.3x VSO of the aircraft you are flying.

Maintain this airspeed together with a descend rate of 500/600 feet per minute.

Once you are over the runway, you can break the glide and allow the airplane to sink slowly.

Another problem among student pilots is to flare too early. Remember to pull the yoke gently and not abruptly.

Pilots tend to pull the yoke abruptly if they did not trim the aircraft properly.

The reason for aircraft floating is abrupt back pressure on the yoke resulting in lift and aircraft gain altitude.

Other reasons for an airplane to float are the ground effect or a sudden gust of air that generates lift over the wings.

Therefore even you performed flawlessly, the ground effect can result in the airplane bouncing.

The best practice to recover from a floating is by adding a little bit of power and not allowing the airplane to sink fast. A high sink rate, even at 10 feet, will cause a harsh impact.

With that hard impact on the ground, your aircraft landing gears will bounce.

Prevention of a porpoising aircraft begins from the downwind leg and how you react after your plane’s first bounce.

IF you think the aircraft is going for a second bounce, don’t allow it have a nosedive. Instead, go around for a second attempt on landing.

Dangers of porpoising on landing.

Porpoising on landing and failure to recovery will induce the airplane to nose dive. A nosedive at high airspeed indicates a severe impact on the ground, breaking the landing gears and propeller leaving the pilots and passengers injured.

As a pilot, don’t wait until you enter a porpoise landing or never try too hard to bring the airplane to the ground. If the situation comes to that, the only thing you can do is to go around.

Aircraft landing procedure.

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aircraft landing procedure - Aircraft landing procedure.

Get a refresher on aircraft landing procedure. If you are a private pilot going back to flying after some time, you must read this article.

You will never forget how to land an airplane, but your feelings might get rusty. Regardless, the set of rules in this post will allow you to make smooth landings.

If you find your landing skills are soft, then always remind yourself of this one thing:

The combination of airspeed and altitude will determine your perfect landing.

Similarly, the phase for a smooth touchdown begins from the moment you enter the downwind leg.

If you are confused in your downwind and caught up on what to do next, you will be lucky not to crash land your airplane on the runway.

Now you can only imagine if you fail to have smooth landings during VFR flights, what will you face during your IFR flight?

The aircraft landing procedure begins by descending to the traffic pattern altitude.

What is descending to traffic pattern altitude?

The procedure for aircraft entering the traffic pattern can’t be over 1,000 feet AGL. I believe you know that already; thus, I will explain it briefly.

If your destination airport elevates 500 feet above MSL, your traffic pattern altitude would be 1500 feet MSL.

That’s because your traffic pattern altitude has to be 1,000 feet AGL.

Therefore, 500 feet MSL elevation + 1,000 feet AGL = 1,500 feet MSL altitude for the traffic pattern.

So let me ask you now, what would be your traffic pattern altitude if the airport elevation is 300 feet MSL?

You must enter the downwind leg maintaining a traffic pattern and at a 45-degree angle.

The Downwind leg.

Like I mentioned, you enter the downwind leg at a 45-degree angle and maintain an altitude of 1,000 feet AGL.

I am writing this article in contradiction to training aircraft that is below 200 horsepower. Thus let’s take Cessna 172 for our example.

Let’s suppose you are on the right downwind of Runway 09 and flying a Cessna 172.

Before entering the leg downwind, finish your landing checklist for your particular aircraft.

Now reduce power between 1800 RPM to 1900 RPM.

Once you reduce power, the airspeed will reduce. At this point, maintain an airspeed of 85 knots.

That’s the ideal airspeed for a downwind leg. If you find it challenging to maintain airspeed to 85 knots, apply flaps and trim your aircraft.

Remember maintaining airspeed is a key to smooth landing. Always ask yourself whether you are too fast for the leg or not.

 If you are too fast for an approach leg, you will likely fall behind the airplane and mess up your landing.

Abeam Threshold.

Abeam threshold, you are still on your right downwind of Runway 09. 

When you are abeam threshold, you can reduce power to 1600 to 1700 RPM.

Reducing power will allow the aircraft to descend and reduce airspeed. Here you can apply Flaps 2 of your Cessna 172 to keep your aircraft stable.

Maintain airspeed between 75 knots to 80 knots.

You can turn base when you are at a 45-degree angle from the threshold of Runway 09. Expect to have an altitude of 800 feet AGL while turning base.

Also, please communicate with the traffic advisory and tell them about your location.

Base leg.

While you are on base, you are very close to make a landing. There is no room for mistakes.

Quickly ask yourself:

  1. Are you too fast or too slow for the leg?;
  2. Are you too low or too high for the portion?;
  3. Are you too far from the runway or too close?;
  4. Are you aware of the traffic in the vicinity?

If anything seems odd to you, you must adjust to make your landing smooth.

If your aircraft is too fast for the leg, you might end up being short on the Final and high on the final.

So it would be best if you made corrections on the base leg.

Maintaining airspeed is crucial for smooth landings. Maintain 75 Knots on the base leg, and as you enter Final, reduce airspeed between 65 knots to 75 knots.

The Final leg of approach.

Now you are on the final leg of your approach. It is best to enter the final at an altitude of 500 feet AGL to make a smooth landing.

A balance between airspeed and descent rate of the aircraft plays a significant role for perfect landings.

  • Airspeed on final has to be between 65 Knots to 75 Knots;
  • Maintain a steady descent rate of 500 to 600 FPM;
  • Use flaps three if you think necessary;
  • Trim your aircraft to stabilize the controls.

Don’t chase the airspeed, instead use trim to maintain a steady airspeed.

At 65 t 75 knots, you can feel the aircraft is flying slow.

Look at the runway and observe the PAPI or VASI lights if the runway has any. To maintain the glideslope, you can follow the glideslope.

Maintaining the glideslope will allow you to land exactly on the runway.

Typically the glideslopes have an angle of three degrees from the runway.

However, when flying a Cessna 172, a smaller aircraft, you can break the glideslope earlier than an airliner.

The airliners are significant and need to follow a glideslope until they make a touchdown.

Once you follow the glideslope with a smaller aircraft, you will likely land farther on the runway.

That is not a bad thing, but if you are an expert, you can break the glideslope and visually land the aircraft.

Once you are over the threshold.

Typically, you are supposed to be at an altitude of 50 feet when you are over the threshold. That’s when you can level off the aircraft.

The reason for the aircraft level is to reduce the descent rate and allow the plane to sink.

Also, keep an eye on your airspeed. Don’t allow the airspeed to be less than 60 knots here.

Because if your airspeed is too low, you might stall at 50 feet. We don’t want to slow our airplane at 50 feet.

We want to flare our aircraft at 10 feet above the ground.


Flaring is the most confusing phase for student pilots or less experienced private pilots.

Pilots often can’t time their flare right. Many low hour pilots either flare the airplane too early or too late.

What happens when you pull the yoke too early?

If you pull the yoke too early, you will cause the airplane to drop quickly and might as well have a tail strike.

If you flare too late, you will end up having bounce landing due to high indicated airspeed.

So how to time your flare for a smooth landing?

It’s best to flare when you are ten feet above the ground.

It isn’t easy to notice when you are ten feet above the ground. So what you do, you have to realize that when you are above ten feet off the ground, you will see the runway quickly feels up the windshield of your aircraft.

The moment you notice the runway seems to be the fills your windshield, you must flare.

But don’t pull the yoke too much. It’s a common problem for inexperienced pilots that they often pull the yoke too far and lose visibility of the runway due to the airplane’s high pitch, and they abruptly touch the ground and bounce.

Remember this whenever you are flaring pull to the point that you lost visibility of the runway.

Always have the runway on sight and slowly allow the aircraft to sink.

That way, you will make an excellent touchdown. Flaring too far will lower the airspeed quickly.


I guess there is a lot to remember for aircraft landing procedure, and it might be hard to apply all these during the actual flight.

In real flight, you have less time to think act quickly, especially during landing.

You don’t have to remember what I said in this article word by word but use it as a guideline for your next landing.

Be assured if you use this as a guideline, your landings.

How long does it take to get a private pilot license?

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how long does it take to get a private pilot license - How long does it take to get a private pilot license?

I guess you want to get your PPL as quickly as you can.

It is possible to get a PPl within 3 months to 6 months, yet many student pilots need 12 months to a year to get a private pilot license.

I explained in this post the things one must do to get their PPL in the shortest possible time.

I divided the time required for acquiring a private pilot license into two sections:

  • The duration for PPL ground school course;
  • Time required for PPL flight training.

What is PPL ground school?

Private pilot ground school, aka PPL ground school, is a training phase where student pilots get theory lessons on aeronautical knowledge.

During the PPL ground school course, student pilots learn various aeronautical subjects and aircraft operations.

Every student pilot must take a PPL ground school either before flight training or during flight training.

A student pilot has two options to pick for PPL ground school course:

  1. Ground schooling in a flight school with a ground Instructor;
  2. Online pilot courses.

Student pilots that train through Part 141 flight schools get their ground training included in their package.

On the contrary, student pilots that train in Part 61 schools prefer to take online pilot ground school courses.

RELATED: Online ground school VS. Classroom.

How long does PPL ground school take?

Student pilots that train in a PART 141 flight school they learn through a structured course.

In PART 141 flight school, if you follow a structured syllabus, the ground school will not take more than a month.

If you are in a PART 61 flight school and self-study using an online private pilot course, you can study at your own pace.

It may take 6 months to finish your PPL ground school if you self-study.

The structured ground training in a PART 141 flight school is accelerated. Students complete the ground lessons within a month and it becomes overwhelming for the student pilots occasionally.

If the knowledge becomes overwhelming for a student pilot then he may purchase an online course to repeat her studies at her own pace to prepare for the FAA PPL knowledge test.

How long does it take for the actual flight training?

According to the FAA, one must fly at least 40 hours before applying for a private pilot license.

Having forty hours in an airplane is not always adequate for PPL applications.

A student pilot needs at least 5~10 hours of solo flight before a private pilot license application.

Regardless, it is common for student pilots to fly 55 hours on average before they are ready for private pilot license application.

Let’s do some math to figure out how long does it take to get a private pilot license.

Assuming you need to fly 55 hours for your private pilot license.

  • You may choose to fly 3 times a week and each time you can fly 2 hours.
  • Thus you can fly 3 Flight X 2 Hours = 6 Hours a week of flying time.
  • In a month, you can fly 6 Hours X 4 Weeks = 24 hours a month.

Thus it would take approximately 2 months for you to complete 55 hours of flying time.

How long would it take to get your private pilot license?

The span for acquiring a private pilot license depends on several factors.

The above math shows: It would take a maximum of three months for anyone to get a private pilot license.

You can get your private pilot license in three months if you have full dedication.

If you are training in a PART 141 flight school, you can expect to have your PPL in 3 months.

However, flight training even in the best flight school is delayed due to factors like:

  • Adverse weather conditions;
  • Money issues of student pilots;
  • Not having sufficient aircraft in the fleet to accommodate student pilots;
  • No available flight instructors;
  • Personal problems of student pilots, etc.

A common one is the personal reasons for student pilots. A student pilot may suddenly decide to take a break for personal reasons.

So the student pilot might quit flight training halfway.

At that point, the student pilot leaves the school after 30 hours of flying time and decides to get back in flying after one year.

This individual will need extra flying hours to get used to with control of the airplane once he gets back to flying after one year.

Therefore this individual student pilot would fly more hours and require more time to get a private pilot license.

What if someone decides to do flight training in a PART 61 flight school?

PART 61 flight school doesn’t always have a structured ground training. In that case, it is best to use an online pilot course while taking flight training at the same time.

But a common problem for student pilots in PART 61 flight school is, many student pilots fly at their own pace.

In PART 61 flight school, there is no timeframe that one must acquire the required hours.

Student pilots in a PART 61 flight school may take three months to one year to get their Private pilot license.

Similarly, money plays a significant role for PART 61 student pilots.

Many pilots want a PPL to fly as a hobby. Thus student pilots sometimes just fly at their own will and pay for the cost of the flight instructor and the airplane when they are able.

So it depends on the student pilots’ cashflow before they can acquire all the necessary flight hours and apply for a private pilot license.


For every student pilot, the time frame to get a private pilot license is different.

Numerous factors contribute to varying duration of private pilot license training.

If we think deep down it all depends on the students progress, willpower to finish quickly and a steady cash flow to fund the private pilot ground school and flight training.

If everything goes smoothly, a student pilot can be a private pilot as quickly as in 3 months. While three months is the minimum span for a full-time student pilot to get a private pilot license, it may take up to a year for many.

What is ADS-B in Aviation?

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what is ads b in aviation - What is ADS-B in Aviation?

Due to the recent popularity of the ADS-B receiver, I hear many student pilots talking about getting a portable ADS-B device.

However, I am certain many student pilots, even private pilots are unaware of the definite use of portable ADS-B devices. Indeed a portable ADS-B receiver will make iPad flying more fun.

I will explain in detail in this post what a portable ADS-B does and why ADS-B out has become a requirement in the recent years.

ADS-B receiver and ADS-B in and out may sound confusing for many.

Pilots from the USA might be familiar with these terms now.

But how about the student pilots from other continents?

I know most student pilots are yet to learn a lot about this topic—especially where this next-generation air traffic management technology is not available.

What is ADS-B in aviation?

ADS-B means Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast. It is a new generation of technology to replace radars shortly.

Radar is an aid for Air Traffic Controllers to see the location of aircraft as well as aircraft identification.

That’s how air traffic controllers provide pilots guidance:

  • For maintaining a specific altitude;
  • And a course to avoid collision with other aircraft.

Nevertheless, there have been several devastating air crashes due to air traffic collision. Crashing with another aircraft on the surface is not as devastating but can become costly for the aircraft operator.

Thus ADS-B can play a better role in preventing accidents in a congested airspace.

Hence, in the future, ADS-B may replace the radar detection system entirely. There is no flaw in the radar detection system. This system has been in use for decades.

However, ADS-B can provide information much more accurately than a radar.

Flying in a radar-based airspace, the pilot has to rely on the air traffic controllers and communicate continuously to avoid any collision.

So how is ADS-B any different from radar-based system?

A pilot today has to depend entirely on what the air traffic controller sees in their radar detection system to avoid collision.

But using:

  • ADS-B compliant avionics;
  • A display onboard the aircraft such as a tablet;
  • A portable ADS-B receiver,

a pilot will be able to see what an air traffic controller is seeing. Knowing what is ahead of the airplane route, a pilot can make better decision in IFR or MVFR flying conditions.

Therefore a pilot flying an airplane equipped with ADS-B equipments can deviate long before going to a collision course.

ADS-B uses satellites to define the location of an aircraft. Thus the GPS and satellites aids the ADS-B display a more accurate position of an airplane.

For ADS-B technology to work precisely, both aircraft and ground controllers have to be equipped with ADS-B in and out.

Student pilots that haven’t heard much about ADS-B are unaware of ADS-b in and ADS-B out.

What are the differences between ADS-b in and ADS-B out?

ADS-B in works as the ADS-B receiver. Portable ADS-B receivers are ADS-B in devices.

So what is ADS-B out?

I will get to that, but let’s understand ADS-B in first.

ADS-B in or portable ADS-B devices enable airplanes to receive real-time weather data and relevant flight information of other aircraft in the vicinity.

However, merely having an ADS-B in or portable ADS-B receiver does not enable the pilot to transmit their location to the ground controller.

Likewise, the airplane in your vicinity will be unaware of your location.

The job of an ADS-B receiver is to receive information on aircraft position and weather data.

But to see all these data, a pilot requires an ADS-B compliant display. An iPad combined with a portable ADS-B receiver to display all the information is very convenient for student pilots.

Having an ADS-B receiver as a pilot will increase your situational awareness.

But if you don’t have ADS-B out in your airplane, you cannot enter a ADS-B rule airspace.

From January, 2020 Federal Aviation Administration Regulation requires every aircraft to be equipped with ADS-B out to fly into Class A, B, C airspace.

What exactly ADS-B out do?

ADS-B out transmit information about the location of the equipped aircraft to air traffic controllers as well as to other aircraft.

Having and ADS-B out in the aircraft allows the satellite to locate the airplane more accurately than a radar.

So the air traffic controller will have more accurate information of your ADS-B out equipped airplane’s:

  • Location;
  • Altitude;
  • Speed of the aircraft;
  • Identification.

Not just the air traffic controllers, any other airplane in the vicinity with ADS-B receiver, can see the exact information on an ADS-B in compliant display such as the iPad.

  • An airplane equipped with ADS-B in and out can receive Data of other planes within a radius of 15 nautical miles and altitude of 3500 feet.

To equip an airplane with ADS-B out means the aircraft either needs:

  • A Mode S transponder;
  • Or Universal access transceiver.

Generally to operate an airplane in the ADS-B rule airspace, the airplane needs:

  • Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS);
  • Upgraded Transponders;
  • Capability to input flight Id;
  • Upgrading the necessary software and hardware.

Do student pilots need ADS-B receiver for iPad flying?

Now that I already gave you a general idea of what ADS-B is, you can decide do you need an ADS-B or not.

But as a pilot myself, I think having a portable ADS-B receiver is excellent for flying.

Using the portable ADS-B receiver and get access to more information as a student pilot will help you.

Even if your aircraft is not equipped with ADS-B out, you can still see information on weather changes or how is the weather en route.

Like I said, indeed, having a portable ADS-Receiver will increase a pilot’s situational awareness.

Having great situational awareness and getting used to with information available to you will help you become a better pilot.

Regardless of your aircraft has ADS-B out or not, you can see the benefits of using a portable ADS-B device once you start using it.

And once you get to fly an aircraft equipped with ADS-B in and ADS-B out, you will be much more comfortable using this next generation air transportation system.

Nevertheless, having a portable ADS-B receiver is not required by law to have in an airplane.

On the contrary, FAA regulations don’t allow aircraft not equipped with ADS-B out to enter ADS-B rule airspace.

Thus if you as a pilot expect to fly in ADS-B rule airspace, then having a portable ADS-B receive and an iPad is not going to help you.

But as the use of ADS-B is rising every day, soon expect to see ADS-B out components installed in all airplanes.

And as a student pilot flying an airplane with ADS-B out, and your ADS-B portable receiver with an iPad will enable you to have a new experience in flying.

What are the benefits of using ADS-B in modern-day Aviation?

As the airspace and airports are getting more and more congested, ADS-B will reduce the risk of air traffic collision by giving a more accurate location information.

As a result, the flights are becoming safer than ever before, and the airline can operate their flights efficiently.

ADS-B ground equipments are cheaper, and installing them is more susceptible than installing a radar.

So a wide area coverage is possible for ADS-B quickly.

How having ADS-B equipped aircraft ensures safety?

An aircraft equipped with ADS-B in and ADS-B out improves the situational awareness of a pilot.

  • The pilot will be able to see the other traffic within 15 nautical miles radius of his/her aircraft;
  • The pilot can read the airspeed of the other the aircraft as well as it’s altitude;
  • The pilot will get a heads up on the weather ahead and what to expect;
  • Users of ADS-B will receive updates on Temporary flight restrictions to runway closures.
  • ADS-B equipped aircraft has a better VFR range coverage;
  • During an emergency the ADS-B enables the search and rescue to locate the aircraft more accurately;
  • Visual separation in all weather conditions for example in MVR conditions;
  • Real-time cockpit weather and airspace display.

How has ADS-B contribute to the efficiency of operating aircraft?

ADS-B enables air traffic controllers to maintain a better flow of traffic.

By having accurate information of the aircraft position, it is easier for air traffic controllers to maintain:

  • Traffic separation;
  • Reduced separation on final approach;
  • Improved air traffic control service in congested airspaces.
  • Surface operations in lower visibility conditions.

Due to all these factors, airlines relying on ADS-B technology in their aircraft is seeing a noticeable reduction in fuel burn and holding times.

How has the ADS-B out rule affected the aircraft operators?

Like I mentioned, aircraft using ADS-B out in their plane will have more benefits than loss.

But airplane not equipped with ADS-B out avionics will be denied access from entering ADS-B rule airspace.

As more and more air traffic controllers and aircraft are complying with ADS-B in and ADS-B out rules, you can say that aircraft without ADS-B equipment will be considered not airworthy of flying soon.

At least an aircraft must have an S mode transponder to operate so that the air traffic controller can see information about your flight.

Without an S mode transponder, your aircraft can not enter the airspace as you will not transmit adequate information to avoid collision inside the airspace.

As the air traffic controllers in an ADS-B rule maintain a smooth flow of flights in a congested area, depending on the information of flights using ADS-B display and receiver.

Entering an ADS-B rule airspace with no ADS-B out equipment in the airplane, may hamper the smooth flow of traffic in the area. Thus the air traffic controller will be unable to get accurate flight information on your aircraft.

So if you, as a student pilot, want to have an ADS-B receiver, that is not a bad idea. It is a small investment you can make to make your flight more entertaining as well as develop situational awareness.

But it is not going to support you entering an ADS-B rule airspace.

Private Pilot Ground School Syllabus.

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private pilot ground school syllabus - Private Pilot Ground School Syllabus.

I believe you have decided to get your pilot license and want a heads up on the contents of the private pilot ground school syllabus.

Either you want to know which subjects will be taught to you in the private pilot ground training or simply to prepare by yourself, this article will help you stay ahead of your pilot training batch mates.

Similarly, from here, you can evaluate whether you are good enough to start your private pilot training or not.

I have designed this private pilot ground school syllabus as a resource for anyone to guide themselves for private pilot training.

All the subjects mentioned here will be taught in flight schools before you go for your first flight.

I suggest using this syllabus as a guideline for studying in advance and prepare before even you enroll in a flight training institute.

A step by step guide includes the chapters of the Jeppesen Private Pilot textbook and the topics in those particular chapters most important for your private pilot training course.

To become a good pilot, you must always keep learning.

The sooner you master the basics, the more apparent it will be for you during the real-world flight training.

Private pilot ground school syllabus.

Introduction to aviation is crucial. Flying an airplane comes with a lot of accountability.

Even a small error by the pilot in flight can be fatal.

Therefore all the student pilots are taught basics from several subjects to build themselves as incompetent pilots.

The number of subjects to become a private pilot is the same as for becoming a commercial pilot.

The only difference is that during private pilot ground training, students learn the straightforward basics.

On the other hand, the subjects for a commercial pilot license are more detailed and in-depth.

Why is that?

As a commercial pilot, you will have the responsibility of passengers aboard.

And as a private pilot, it is highly likely that you will fly by yourself during weekends.

Therefore more responsibility as a commercial pilot requires you to have more knowledge.

However, let’s not talk much about the commercial pilot ground training subjects.

We are here to discuss the private pilot ground school syllabus, thus let’s begin that.

To ease your trouble, I have structured the subjects according to the Jeppesen private pilot book chapters.

I am doing so because the Jeppesen textbook is the most popular book used for private pilot training in the ground.

Pupils from flight schools around the world use this book.

I am expecting you to have Jeppesen private pilot book by now.

If you do not have one order one from Amazon now.

Subjects for private pilot ground training:

There are generally nine subjects shown during ground training.

Aircraft General Knowledge.

The second chapter of the Jeppesen private pilot book contains all the necessary knowledge required for private pilots to know.

This chapter explains the parts of an airplane.

You can learn about:

  • Fuselage Construction;
  • Wing construction;
  • Construction materials;
  • Airplane Powerplant:
    • Types of powerplants;
    • Classification of piston engines;
    • Fundamental engine components and operation;
    • The sequence of engine strokes;
    • Timing;
  • Flight Instruments:
    • Pitot static instruments;
    • Gyroscopic instruments;
    • Magnetic compass
  • Fuel systems:
    • Carburetor construction and maintenance;
    • Leaning mixture at cruise;
    • Carburetor ice;
    • Carburetor heat;
    • Turbocharging;
    • Fuel injection;
  • Hydraulic system;
  • Heat & vent system, etc.
  • Lubrication systems;
  • Ignition systems;
  • Electrical systems;
  • Vacuum systems

Principles of Flight.

Principles of flight are in the third chapter of the Jeppesen book. The name of the section in the book is Aerodynamic principles.

This chapter consists of:

  • Four forces of flight;
    • Theory of lift;
    • Theory of drag;
    • Thrust generation;
    • Weight of the aircraft;
  • Stability of the airplane;
  • Design of the wing;
  • Three axes of the plane;
  • Stability of the aircraft;
    • Longitudinal (Ailerons);
    • Lateral (Elevator);
    • Directional (Rudder);
  • Flight performance:
    • Asymmetric thrust;
    • Precession;
    • Slipstream;
    • Climbing;
    • Gliding;
    • Turns;
    • Stalls;
    • Spins;
    • Spiral dives

Operational procedures.

Chapter four in the Jeppesen textbook is “The flight environment,” which is also known as operational procedures.

Knowing operational procedures is essential for student pilots to ensure safety during operation at the airport.

Regardless of where you fly, busy, or not congested airspace, this chapter will teach you to be a safe pilot.

In this chapter, you will learn:

  • Safety of flight;
  • Uncontrolled airport procedures;
  • Controlled airport procedures;
  • Aeronautical charts;
  • All special procedures;
  • Types of airspace;
  • Wake turbulence;
  • Jet blast;
  • Taxiing;
  • Filing, opening and choosing a flight plan

Flight communication.

Chapter five has all the details of safely navigating and how to maintain communication to prevent fatal situations.

This chapter has:

  • Radar and ATC service;
  • Radio procedure;
  • Radio frequencies;
  • Phonetic alphabets;
  • Standard sequences;
  • Distress communications;
  • Priority of communication


It is essential to learn how to interpret weather to ensure a safe flight.

Chapter 6 is all about aviation weather. A good pilot knows which weather is safe for flying and which cloud to avoid.

In chapters 6 and 7 of the Jeppesen private pilot textbook, you will learn everything from basic meteorology to weather theory.

The important things to study from these chapters are:

  • The atmosphere;
  • Clouds;
  • Pressure;
  • Wind;
  • Weather services;
  • Metar;
  • Weather Hazards;
  • Moisture & Temperature;
  • Stability;
  • Air masses;
  • Fronts;
  • Cloud formation;
  • Lifting process;
  • Precipitation;
  • Fog;
  • Visibility
  • Thunderstorms;
  • Icing;

Flight Performance & Planning.

This subject is related to the weight and balance of the aircraft you will be flying as a student pilot.

If you do not will to stall during landing, then chapter eight is all you have to study.

In this chapter, you will study:

  • E6B computer
    • Slide rule side
    • Wind side
  • Electronic computers;
  • Pre-flight planning form;
  • Performance charts
  • Weight & Balance;
  • Cross country planning/ Diversions;
  • Basic plotting exercise


Chapter 9 in the Jeppesen Private Pilot Handbook is the chapter that will teach you how to navigate in the sky.

Flying an airplane is not like driving a car. Unlike driving a car, you are in the sky, and everything will look a lot different from the birds-eye view.

And during the night, your route may be pitch black.

So if you do not learn how to navigate your airplane in the sky, you cannot reach your destination.

Without knowing how to use visual references outside and not remembering how to use the VOR, you will lose direction in the sky.

Therefore Chapter 9 will explain:

  • Latitude & longitude;
  • Time Zones;
  • Time & Longitude;
  • Bearings and headings;
  • Rhumb lines & great circle routes;
  • Magnetic compass;
  • Earth’s magnetism;
  • Magnetic dip;
  • Variation & deviation;
  • Allowing for variation and deviation;
  • Compass construction;
  • Northerly turning errors;
  • Acceleration errors;
  • Aviation charts / Maps;
  • Projections / Scale;
  • Chart index / Symbols;
  • Basic plotting.

Chapter 9 also contains sections on the advanced navigation system.

By saying advanced, I mean the radio navigation techniques:

  • Radio Communications;
  • VOR (VHF Omni-directional Range) Navigation;
  • ADF (Automatic direction finder) Navigation;
  • GNSS / GPS (Global Positioning System)
  • WAAS ( The wide-area augmentation system)
  • Transponder;
  • Primary and secondary surveillance radar

Human Performance.

The human performance section speaks about the aviation physiology and aeronautical decision making.

Chapter 10 will explain:

  • Hypoxia / Hyperventilation;
  • Nutrition;
  • Alcohol / Drugs / Medications
  • Environmental factors;
  • Sensory Sources & Sensory Illusions
  • Decompression effects;
  • Trapped gases;
  • G-loc;
  • Fatigue

The list, as mentioned above, is about aviation physiology.

NOW let’s discuss what will you learn from the aeronautical decision-making section of this chapter:

  • The accident chain;
  • The decision making process;
  • Factors affecting decision making;
  • Situational awareness;
  • Stress and stress management;
  • Personality traits;
  • Hazardous attitudes;
  • Managing risk

Lastly, in a structured private pilot ground school syllabus, there will be a few hours of class on the specific airplane you will be flying during the training.

Your flight instructor will refer you all the relevant notes from the Pilot Operating Handbook of the airplane you are to fly.

Such as if you will be flying a Cessna 172 Skyhawk, then you will need a Cessna 172 Skyhawkw pilot’s operating handbook for a Cessna 172.

There are many things you might have to learn and memorize if required from this pilot’s operating handbook.

Air law and regulations.

Civil aviation regulations is a vital subject. Air law is the first subject that students learn in any pilot training ground school.

Depending on your location, the air regulations are slightly different.

The civil aviation body of the respective country will set the rules and publish them through their website or as publications.

During your ground school classes, you will discover:

  • Licenses and permits;
  • Ratings;
  • Licensing standards;
  • Medical standards;
  • Domestic airspace;
  • Classification of airspace;
  • Aeronautical information manual;
  • NOTAMs
  • Required documents;
  • Emergencies

This private pilot ground school syllabus is simply a reference for students pilots to study at home.

You can use it to prepare yourself in advance or to review the most important things as a private pilot.


What Does It Take To Get Your Private Pilot License | FAA Requirements

Ever wonder what it takes to get your Private Pilot License? Here's a quick breakdown of what the requirements are.

I've tried my best to give you a general idea of all the requirements. I may not have them down exactly but it will give you everything you need to get started.

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How Much Does It Cost To Get Your Private Pilot License | HOW TO SAVE MONEY

In our video, we give you a great breakdown on how much it will cost to get your Private Pilot License, or Private Pilot Certificate. (Which is what its actually called!) These are some of the most realistic numbers you'll find!

I give you some numbers based on what I've found, but you may need to do some math based on the rates in your area.

FAA Aviation Handbooks & Manuals –
Airman Knowledge Testing Center List –
Materials for your Private Pilot Certificate – Coming SOON!

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